Causes, Consequences, and Treatment of Dementia: Managing Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Causes of Cognitive Decline

Dementia is the gradual, progressive, and irreversible decline of cognitive function involved in attention, memory, and other higher thought processes. It typically affects the elderly population and presents many challenges for these individuals and their loved ones. The condition has many causes, but its consequences and treatments are generally similar.

Causes of Dementia

  • Alzheimer’s Disease: When one thinks of dementia, he or she often thinks of Alzheimer’s disease. This is the most common cause of dementia, which involves the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, beta-amyloid deposits, and plaques that cause the brain to shrink in size (atrophy).
  • Vascular Dementia: The second most common cause of dementia is vascular dementia. This basically occurs when strokes, involving small or large vessels, affect parts of the brain that contribute to cognitive function.
  • Lewy Body Dementia: Lewy body dementia, the third most common cause of dementia, involves deposits of alpha-synuclein protein. These Lewy bodies are also implicated in Parkinson’s disease, which may or may not coexist with dementia.
  • Other Causes: The remaining causes of dementia include but are not limited to HIV-associated dementia, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Consequences of Dementia

A variety of mental functions can change permanently as a result of dementia. Memory loss is often the first sign of dementia. A patient with dementia may then have trouble with communication (aphasia), decision-making, and/or identification of objects despite normal sensory function (agnosia). In later stages of dementia, the individual gradually has difficulties with motor movements (apraxia), such as those for walking, eating, bathing, and other activities of daily living. Throughout this ongoing process of decline, the individual can become frustrated and develop emotional problems.

These direct effects can lead to a number of other consequences. For example, memory loss can result in home safety risk, such as not turning off a stove, or in difficulty with simple tasks, such as finding a certain room at home. Limitations in movement increase the likelihood of medical problems, including but not limited to trauma from falls, pressure ulcers from prolonged immobility in one position, and malnutrition from not being able to eat or drink. These medical issues typically occur in intermediate and late stages of dementia and are often the cause of death in patients with dementia.

Principles of Treatment

Because dementia is irreversible, treatment does not restore prior cognitive function. Rather, it focuses on slowing the progression of disease and enhancing the quality of life. Certain causes of dementia can be addressed with medications, such as donepezil for Alzheimer’s disease. Otherwise, the patient should have access to leisure activities, appropriate for his or her level of function, within safe and familiar surroundings. He or she must also have assistance from caregivers, whether they are family members or nursing home staff. All of these measures should be ongoing until the patient’s end of life.

Kimberly McCullough Pregnant – from Recovery to Fulfillment

We all know Kimberly McCullough as Robin on General Hospital. We marvel at her acting in this daytime show. But deep inside her, a rough journey occurred. She chronicled what transpired in her life in late 2015 when she suffered a miscarriage. But despite the experience, life goes on for Kimberly. In her emotional blog, she wrote about moving out to LA together with her dog and her anonymous significant other, as well as being pregnant again. According to her, this is one of the best years for her. A few weeks from now, her  pregnancy will be over and she will give birth to a baby boy. Meantime, here are some images of Kimberly McCullough pregnant and enjoying it. Talk about miracles.

After moving out from LA, Kimberly found out that she was pregnant again proving that the timing was right.

You would not think that the drama in her TV show also happened in her life, but hey, Kimberly stood strong all these times.

Kimberly’s subtle smile may mean something is going on with her. Does it tell you that she is pregnant or something else?

We will not know the hard times Kimberly is going through after she wrote about it in her blog, but thankfully, everything will fall into place and the right time for her with her new baby boy coming up.


Suffering from a miscarriage can be devastating, but life goes on with Kimberly. A new home comes with a new baby – that’s what you can call the right pieces come along.

We all love her as Robin in General Hospital, but we also love her as she stayed strong all the time. A new beginning meets new hope.

Kimberly’s dog has been with her and have helped her cope during the tough times. Kudos to Kimberly for being tough.

Kimberly is truly a picture of being blessed – after that unfortunate event, she will become a mother again.

Kimberly will definitely become a great mother in the near future. We all know she will. Just look at her smile with a kid.

Few weeks from now, the expectant Kimberly will become a full-time mom. Still, she makes the father of the baby anonymous. Nevertheless, she is enjoying her life now as we see it.

Searching for Perfection: Rumer Willis Before and After Plastic Surgery

Rumer Willis is the oldest daughter of Bruce Willis and Demi Moore, who is making a name for herself as a singer and actress. She won the 20th season of Dancing with the Stars, has a recurring role in Empire and had her Broadway debut in the musical, Chicago. She’s got her mother’s sparkling eyes but she sees imperfections in her face and body.  Like many stars, Rumer Willis also had plastic surgery.

At age 17 she did Hostage, a drama action thriller film together with her father, Bruce Willis. She’s a natural beauty, with her dark curly locks, although the shape of her face is quite manly.

From this rare side view shot, it’s easy to deduce why Rumer had plastic surgery on her chin. Her features are all right but her chin makes her face a tad too long.

In this before and after photo, the difference between her original chin and the reduced one is very obvious. Notice too that her lips are slightly pouty on the picture on the right.

Here’s another look. Compare the distance from the base of the lower lip to the point of her chin. Her natural beauty is enhanced more, so the plastic surgery was a good option.

Rumer looks gorgeous here, and shows the innate beauty passed on by her mom. Notice that her former thin lips are plumper but still natural-looking.

This photo shows that she’s not generously endowed. However, the lack of volume on her chest does not detract from her inherent beauty as well as her talent, courtesy of her parents.

Many are saying that she chose a very good doctor to do her breasts, because they look so natural. As she said before, if it will make her feel good, she’ll do it.

Look how proud she is here. Who wouldn’t, if you’ve got a boob job that truly enhances your overall figure? Don’t you agree that her breasts complements her size and shape?

See what Rumer Willis’ plastic surgery contributed to her natural beauty. The slight shaving off in the chin area gave her a balanced and defined jaw line.

Whoa! Now, she’s overdone it. This was taken in February 2017. The very obvious lip injections were jarring.

Sojouner Truth Facts – Her contributions and more

Sojouner Truth will always be popular for his remarkable extemporaneous speech about racial inequalities entitled “Ain’t I a Woman?” This was delivered at the convention of Women’s Rights in the year 1851. Basically, the name Sojourner Truth was considered to be a self-given name. This started from the year 1843 onwards. This was also done by Isabella Baumfree who was an African-American abolitionist and as well as an activist for women’s rights. These were all found in Sojouner Truth facts. Needless to say, Truth was born in the state of slavery tracing back her life at Swartekill, New York. However, she was able to escape this kind of life together with her daughter, who was still an infant that time. They were freed in the year 1826.

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As mentioned, Truth will always be known for her speech about racial inequalities. She delivered this in the convention for Ohio Women’s Rights in the year 1851. Since she was born to slavery, she came from a big family. A family of 12 siblings. There was no record about the real birth date of Truth. This is so typical and it happens a lot to those who were born out of poverty. Many historians claimed that she was born though around the year 1797. However, for the exact date yet, that is to be left answered one of these days. The father of truth was captured from Ghana. His name was James Baumfree. The Baumfree family, her family – was then owned by a person named Colonel Hardenbergh. From then, they lived in the colonel state which is situated in Esopus, New York. This was just 95 miles from north, New York City. Before, that particular area was still under the control of the Dutch. This was the occurrence when Hardenbaugs and Baumfrees spoke Dutch. They did this for their everyday life.

When the said colonel died, the ownership of the family was then passed over to the son of their master. His name was Charles. Despite this though, the Baumfrees had to be separated from one another. This occurred right after the death of Charles. This transpired in the year 1806. During this time, Truth was only 9-years old. Those were the times when she was known as Belle. She was sold for an auction together with a group of sheep for the amount of $100. She was sent off to a new owner that time. The name of the person was John Neely. He was remembered by Truth as violent and harsh. As for the following two years, she found herself being sold twice. This led to her being able to reside on the property owned by John Dumont. This was in West Park, New York. These were the times when Truth finally learned how to speak English. Such was the first time.

It was in the year 1843 when Truth changed her name. This was the point in her life when she decided to pursue the life of Methodism. She fought for slavery to be abolished.

Millard Fillmore Facts – What really happened?

Millard Fillmore, the previous president of the United States, is normally remembered for his innumerable jokes. Most of the time, the mentioned jokes are about his lacking of accomplishments, down to the quite unusual name he goes along with. As a matter of fact, Fillmore appeared to be very much knowledgeable when it comes to the topic of obscurity. This was the case of him ever since he was removed from that of the White House. This will always be found on a ton of Millard Fillmore facts available around. It is not surprising anymore.

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More about Millard Fillmore

Millard Fillmore grew up from a poor family. He was born from a particular log cabin. Basically, it can be said that Fillmore had to spend so much of his time clearing his youth. He was assigned to raise crops which was quite evident on their 13—acre farm. This was leased by his father. When he was 14 years old, it was his father who hoped to steer him away from the life that they have – farm life. This was the main reason why he was apprenticed to be a cloth dresser instead. However, when he finally returned to his home, there was an allegation saying that he suffered from mistreatment. Fillmore had to apprentice with owners then. These owners have their own textile mile. He just received a minimal amount of formal schooling. Even though this is the case, he made sure to work hard in order to be educated. This was the reason why he turned out to be a schoolteacher. There was also a visible interest in law. This was spurred by the landlord of his father who was a local judge. There was a couple of clerkships followed here. It was during that time when Fillmore was then admitted to a certain bar. This occurred at the age of 23. A practice was then opened Buffalo, New York. He was able to make a living out of this. This was also the time when he met political leaders.

The start of his political life happened when he decided to be an anti-mason. This was the time when he was elected in the legislature way back in the year 1828 at New York. He was strongly opposing the freemasonry. As a matter of fact, he even remained affiliated with such party. This was really pollewing will in the western part of New York. This was also true upon him winning the election to the United States. This was against the House of Representatives for almost four years. Ties were cut soon as he joined the Whig Party. There was an amalgam of forces here which are meant to go opposite that of President Andrew Jackson. Since he was a Whig, Fillmore got to serve the House for almost three years. He lost a race when he ran for governor in New York. Instead, he became a comptroller. He was suddenly surprised with a nomination done by Zachary Taylor. He was his running mate at this point. This happened in the 1838 presidential election.

Strattera for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD): Using Non-Stimulant Medications for ADD and ADHD

When an adult or child is diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder or ADHD, doctors frequently prescribe a type of medication that works on the brain and chemicals in the brain called dopamine. These drugs like Ritalin and Adderall are called psycho-stimulants and work on the neurotransmitter dopamine to help control impulsive behavior and improve concentration.

While it may seem backwards to prescribe a medication that stimulates the brain, this form of treatment is shown to be quite successful in children and adults with ADD.

However, in some cases, a non-stimulating drug may be more effective for certain types of ADD and ADHD. These medications work on a different chemical in the brain called norepinephrine.

The FDA has only approved one type of medication to be classified as a non-stimulating treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This medication is called atomoxetine and sold under the name Strattera.

Benefits of Strattera for ADD and ADHD

Lilly USA, the manufacturer of Strattera says that norepinepherine reuptake inhibitors have the potential to help people:

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  • Have better follow-through
  • Finish Tasks
  • Keep attention and focus
  • Maintain structure and organization in tasks

A major benefit for people taking Strattera is that the medication offers continual relief, not the “on and off effect of CNS (Central Nervous System stimulating medicines),” according to Dr. Brian D. Boyle, author of Understanding and Treating Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This is especially appealing to patients who have experienced the crash, or extreme drop in energy, when a stimulating medication like Ritalin wears off.

Dr. Boyle also cautions patients and parents to be patient with medications like Strattera because the drugs do take time to work, similar in the way antidepressants may take up to a month or more to notice improvement. In fact, Strattera may also improve symptoms of depression in ADD and ADHD patients who have been diagnosed with both depression and ADD.

Concerns about Strattera for ADD and ADHD

As with any medication, atomexetine has potential side effects. The most common reported problems from both children and adults taking Strattera are nausea and feeling tired. Taking the medication with food can help with stomach problems. As the body becomes adjusted to the medication, energy levels do seem to balance however sometimes an adjustment in the dose may be necessary as well.

More serious side effects of Strattera can include liver damage and suicidal thoughts. Most doctors discuss at length the concerns for patients, especially children, and to be aware of the potentially dangerous side effect. Lilly reports that although thoughts of suicide occur in only less than half of one percent (4 out of 1000) patients, people should be aware and prepared for the possibility.

Deciding to Take Medication Like Strattera for ADD

There are many forms of treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder and ADHD. Medication can be very helpful but there is no magic single pill that can fix every symptom. Other treatments combined with medication and therapy are showing great promise. Treatment takes time and patience. Success can be achieved with proper expectations and understanding.

Ramen Noodles Nutrition Facts – Good or Bad?

The rate of obesity is alarmingly increasing. There are so many factors affecting such. As a matter of fact, this is not solely hereditary. There are instances when it is the result of people’s lifestyle. This can be really alarming. According to studies, almost 1/3 of the population of the world is obese. This is like 30% of it. It is not just about obesity, it is also linked and connected to overweight. No country in the world, not even a single one, got to reduce its rate for the last three decades, or 33 years to be specific. This was the result of the research done and published involving almost 188 countries.

With the aforementioned said, it is crucial that each and every one gets conscious with what she or he eats. For this article, Ramen noodles nutrition facts will be opened and talked about.

For those who have tasted ramen, and then it is known as a fact that most restaurants that serve such can be involved in a soup game for they are given the prerogative to give such a different and new twist. This is the reality as compared to that of an instant stuff. This is penny-pinching in its very sense and there are many college students out there who will be able to relate. The broth may be way meatier. In here, the noodles may even be a lot fluffier. The whole experience, in totality, will be really elegant. There are instances when the soup may be served with egg. This may be seen on the top. Such a glorious experience.

But then – the real question is this – how does the instant and the real compare in nutrition? There might be a big question mark in here. This should not be hard. Just grab the instant Ramen, and then turn it over. The wrapper, at the back, will show a table and it contains fat, calories, and even the sodium content of the food. As for Nissan Top Ramen, for example, it goes with a fat of 14 grams, 1,820 of sodium and 380 calories. This is the nutritional value which is linked to the Chicken Flavor they offer.

Is the aforementioned just alright? Well, according to FDA, it is recommended that many just consume not more than of 2,300 salts each day. There is a package for the noodle in here. There are even instances when it comes with half which is somehow alarming.

It may be difficult indeed. Revealing status on these restaurant-made ramens can be a daunting task to do. Looking at the dish though, it may be trending in itself. That is an assurance. There are specialty shops out there which pop up with determination with regard to that. However, it has to be homogenized in a really fast manner before anything else. Consumers should somehow be privy in the looking of nutritional data. This is the reality of it.

Develop a healthy lifestyle. It would not hurt to be strict when it comes to food serving.