Causes, Consequences, and Treatment of Dementia: Managing Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Causes of Cognitive Decline

Dementia is the gradual, progressive, and irreversible decline of cognitive function involved in attention, memory, and other higher thought processes. It typically affects the elderly population and presents many challenges for these individuals and their loved ones. The condition has many causes, but its consequences and treatments are generally similar.

Causes of Dementia

  • Alzheimer’s Disease: When one thinks of dementia, he or she often thinks of Alzheimer’s disease. This is the most common cause of dementia, which involves the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, beta-amyloid deposits, and plaques that cause the brain to shrink in size (atrophy).
  • Vascular Dementia: The second most common cause of dementia is vascular dementia. This basically occurs when strokes, involving small or large vessels, affect parts of the brain that contribute to cognitive function.
  • Lewy Body Dementia: Lewy body dementia, the third most common cause of dementia, involves deposits of alpha-synuclein protein. These Lewy bodies are also implicated in Parkinson’s disease, which may or may not coexist with dementia.
  • Other Causes: The remaining causes of dementia include but are not limited to HIV-associated dementia, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Consequences of Dementia

A variety of mental functions can change permanently as a result of dementia. Memory loss is often the first sign of dementia. A patient with dementia may then have trouble with communication (aphasia), decision-making, and/or identification of objects despite normal sensory function (agnosia). In later stages of dementia, the individual gradually has difficulties with motor movements (apraxia), such as those for walking, eating, bathing, and other activities of daily living. Throughout this ongoing process of decline, the individual can become frustrated and develop emotional problems.

These direct effects can lead to a number of other consequences. For example, memory loss can result in home safety risk, such as not turning off a stove, or in difficulty with simple tasks, such as finding a certain room at home. Limitations in movement increase the likelihood of medical problems, including but not limited to trauma from falls, pressure ulcers from prolonged immobility in one position, and malnutrition from not being able to eat or drink. These medical issues typically occur in intermediate and late stages of dementia and are often the cause of death in patients with dementia.

Principles of Treatment

Because dementia is irreversible, treatment does not restore prior cognitive function. Rather, it focuses on slowing the progression of disease and enhancing the quality of life. Certain causes of dementia can be addressed with medications, such as donepezil for Alzheimer’s disease. Otherwise, the patient should have access to leisure activities, appropriate for his or her level of function, within safe and familiar surroundings. He or she must also have assistance from caregivers, whether they are family members or nursing home staff. All of these measures should be ongoing until the patient’s end of life.

Kimberly McCullough Pregnant – from Recovery to Fulfillment

We all know Kimberly McCullough as Robin on General Hospital. We marvel at her acting in this daytime show. But deep inside her, a rough journey occurred. She chronicled what transpired in her life in late 2015 when she suffered a miscarriage. But despite the experience, life goes on for Kimberly. In her emotional blog, she wrote about moving out to LA together with her dog and her anonymous significant other, as well as being pregnant again. According to her, this is one of the best years for her. A few weeks from now, her  pregnancy will be over and she will give birth to a baby boy. Meantime, here are some images of Kimberly McCullough pregnant and enjoying it. Talk about miracles.

After moving out from LA, Kimberly found out that she was pregnant again proving that the timing was right.

You would not think that the drama in her TV show also happened in her life, but hey, Kimberly stood strong all these times.

Kimberly’s subtle smile may mean something is going on with her. Does it tell you that she is pregnant or something else?

We will not know the hard times Kimberly is going through after she wrote about it in her blog, but thankfully, everything will fall into place and the right time for her with her new baby boy coming up.


Suffering from a miscarriage can be devastating, but life goes on with Kimberly. A new home comes with a new baby – that’s what you can call the right pieces come along.

We all love her as Robin in General Hospital, but we also love her as she stayed strong all the time. A new beginning meets new hope.

Kimberly’s dog has been with her and have helped her cope during the tough times. Kudos to Kimberly for being tough.

Kimberly is truly a picture of being blessed – after that unfortunate event, she will become a mother again.

Kimberly will definitely become a great mother in the near future. We all know she will. Just look at her smile with a kid.

Few weeks from now, the expectant Kimberly will become a full-time mom. Still, she makes the father of the baby anonymous. Nevertheless, she is enjoying her life now as we see it.

Searching for Perfection: Rumer Willis Before and After Plastic Surgery

Rumer Willis is the oldest daughter of Bruce Willis and Demi Moore, who is making a name for herself as a singer and actress. She won the 20th season of Dancing with the Stars, has a recurring role in Empire and had her Broadway debut in the musical, Chicago. She’s got her mother’s sparkling eyes but she sees imperfections in her face and body.  Like many stars, Rumer Willis also had plastic surgery.

At age 17 she did Hostage, a drama action thriller film together with her father, Bruce Willis. She’s a natural beauty, with her dark curly locks, although the shape of her face is quite manly.

From this rare side view shot, it’s easy to deduce why Rumer had plastic surgery on her chin. Her features are all right but her chin makes her face a tad too long.

In this before and after photo, the difference between her original chin and the reduced one is very obvious. Notice too that her lips are slightly pouty on the picture on the right.

Here’s another look. Compare the distance from the base of the lower lip to the point of her chin. Her natural beauty is enhanced more, so the plastic surgery was a good option.

Rumer looks gorgeous here, and shows the innate beauty passed on by her mom. Notice that her former thin lips are plumper but still natural-looking.

This photo shows that she’s not generously endowed. However, the lack of volume on her chest does not detract from her inherent beauty as well as her talent, courtesy of her parents.

Many are saying that she chose a very good doctor to do her breasts, because they look so natural. As she said before, if it will make her feel good, she’ll do it.

Look how proud she is here. Who wouldn’t, if you’ve got a boob job that truly enhances your overall figure? Don’t you agree that her breasts complements her size and shape?

See what Rumer Willis’ plastic surgery contributed to her natural beauty. The slight shaving off in the chin area gave her a balanced and defined jaw line.

Whoa! Now, she’s overdone it. This was taken in February 2017. The very obvious lip injections were jarring.